Places where founders of religions lived or died or even performed miracles became essential places of pilgrimage and worship. This is why, to name a few, Jesus, Buddha and Muhammad all have their different places of worship on pilgrimage routes. Myths and dogmas all have their stories of such events, but the places do not come alive until they are used in religious practice. Pilgrimage is a very important aspect of religions in practice, of living religions.
Pilgrimage does not have to be part of an institutional religion. It does not even have to belong to what is traditionally called religion. So-called secular pilgrimage is as real and important for those participating as for those engaging in conventional religious pilgrimage. A pilgrimage can also be metaphorical - or existential - travel through life. Many people find their own lives to be following a line of spiritual growth, where pilgrimage sites are stations on the road, giving experiences with lifelong effects.
Traditionally, pilgrimage involved hardship and endurance, sometimes even the threat of death. Suffering seemed mandatory to gain maximum reward from the sacred journey. Mountains had to be climbed and religious asceticism endured. Today, many such hardships have been transformed into symbolic actions in much more comfortable forms. Nowadays, traveling is a rather enjoyable endeavor.click here
CANTERBURY - Definition and synonyms of Canterbury in the German dictionary
All in all, pilgrimage is a sacred voyage to a place of spiritual, religious or personal importance. For many pilgrims, those who voluntarily travel a long and often painful way to visit a pilgrimage site, the experience of the journey and the lessons it imparts are as important to their spiritual growth as their arrival at the final destination.
Victor Turner presented a theoretical model of pilgrimage in the s which has been frequently revisited by scholars of religious studies and social anthropology. His main focus was on the comparative study of ritual symbols and social processes, and how they existed and changed over time. Pilgrimage is defined as having an elliptical form. Turner started focusing on the phenomenon of pilgrimage after studying African tribal societies and transition rites, discovering a similarity in the sequence structure between pilgrimages and tribal transition rites.
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Gennep , contains three differing phases where a person is transferred from one social status to another during his or her life. He emphasized that sacred journeys have several elements of liminality the state of being away from the familiar in their transition rites. There is the short-term release from the constrictive everyday routine; release from stress, worry, and guilt; movement from the ordinary center to a sacred periphery; equality of status; simplicity of clothing and behavior; reflection on the sense of religious and cultural values; the ritualized performance of communication between religious models and shared human experience; and experience of sister- and brotherhood Turner and Turner ; Although there are similarities in sequence structure between pilgrimage and a transition rite, they are not the same, as Turner incorrectly concluded.
There is a huge difference in function and purpose. The function of the transition rite for the individual is to make it easier for him or her to reach the new social status and serves the integration of this person into society. The differences are obvious: pilgrimage has a return, whereas a transition rite is a predestined step, unalterable as it is unavoidable and obligatory. Turner differentiates between three types of communitas because he considered the social bond on a pilgrimage to be of considerable import.
These types are, according to Turner:. It is not a mere utilitarian group, for its collective aims contain religious and ethical codes as well as political regulations. In my opinion, the moment of communitas is the crucial point within a pilgrimage because it equalizes all pilgrims as their worldly social status evaporates.
The journey is an experience of strong fellowship, sometimes friendship , with all of one mind. Complete solidarity, togetherness and kinship represent the underpinnings of communitas. Given its tendency toward cross-cultural generalization, many scholars understandably reacted with discontent to this theory.
Further critiques maintain that understanding the procedure of pilgrimage as a transfer from structure to anti-structure and back stands for a condensed view because pilgrimage is reduced to the phenomenon of solidarity and communitas, whereas the importance should lie far beyond the actual travels of the pilgrims. Unquestionably, pilgrims sometimes feel strong affinity for their fellows and build new friendships, but these occurrences are rather side-effects than the main features.
However, pilgrims maintain an individual social structure. In fact, the nature of these social ties is predictable since all the participants share similar religious values, which often build the background of pilgrimage in the first place. Turner was in search of the specific quality which differentiates and characterizes pilgrimages. Turner saw pilgrimage not as a social process but as the transformation from one level of spirituality to another. Conclusively, this transformation must be the one specific quality which characterizes pilgrimages, just as transition typifies the transition rites.
Synonyms and antonyms of Canterbury in the German dictionary of synonyms
Unsurprisingly, Turner was impressed by the obvious similarity in sequence structure. His remark that the return road of a pilgrimage is psychologically different from the approach road is a noteworthy observation. Certainly, the intensity of transformation, ranging from ecstatic to moderate, is different from pilgrim to pilgrim since everybody is an individual with individualized needs and perspectives. A good example to illustrate this contrast is the picture of a person taking a bath.
The dirtier the person was, the cleaner he or she feels afterwards. For example, ritual bathing is a significant part of pilgrimage, especially in Hindu tradition. It is the same there: the bigger the contrast, the more miraculous the feeling afterwards. The feeling of cleanliness in this context is not just a spiritual or mental one , but a physical one as well. Therefore, the act of ritual bathing may also symbolize the process of death and rebirth. Miracles really are expected to occur at a pilgrimage site; whenever someone is cured, pilgrims are sure that a miracle has happened Turner and Turner , 6.
An everyday example illustrates the transformation from suffering to bliss: everybody identifies with toothaches and the wonderful feeling that occurs when they suddenly stop. Hence the person who starts the return road is a new person, symbolically reborn. Sometimes rebirth might even have happened in a physical way, when the person was cured of an illness. The return stands for the ultimate transformation and completion of the pilgrimage.
Grand Jury. Synonyms and antonyms of Canterbury in the German dictionary of synonyms. Examples of use in the German literature, quotes and news about Canterbury. Sorry, aber ich habe eine Verabredung mit dem Erzbischof von Canterbury. Jahrhundert, die von Geoffrey Chaucer etwa ab geschrieben wurden. Geoffrey Chaucer, Jeanne Fischer, Michael Dathe, Anselm von Canterbury, Markus Enders, In historical research, Stephen Langton is primarily known as a Parisian master of theology. Daniel Baumann, Silvia Stillert, Sign In.
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