Yet with penal substitution at the center", he also maintains that " Christus Victor and other Scriptural views of atonement can work together to present a fully orbed picture of Christ's work". Kenneth Grider , speaking from a governmental theory perspective, says that the governmental theory can incorporate within itself "numerous understandings promoted in the other major Atonement theories", including ransom theory, elements of the "Abelardian 'moral influence' theory", vicarious aspects of the atonement, etc.
Anglican theologian Oliver Chase Quick described differing theories as being of value, but also denied that any particular theory was fully true, saying, 'if we start from the fundamental and cardinal thought of God's act of love in Jesus Christ I think we can reach a reconciling point of view, from which each type of theory is seen to make its essential contribution to the truth, although no one theory, no any number of theories, can be sufficient to express its fullness. Others say that some models of the atonement naturally exclude each other.
McGrath, for example, talking about the atonement, says that 'Paul This is not only different from substitution, it is the opposite of it. Kenneth Grider, quoted above showing the compatibility of various atonement models with the governmental theory, nevertheless also says that both penal substitution and satisfaction atonement theories are incompatible with the governmental theory.
Some confusion can occur when discussing the atonement because the terms used sometimes have differing meanings depending on the contexts in which they are used. According to Eastern Christian theology, based upon their understanding of the atonement as put forward by Irenaeus recapitulation theory , Jesus' death is a ransom. This restores the relation with God, who is loving and reaches out to humanity, and offers the possibility of theosis c.
In Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism salvation is seen as participation in the renewal of human nature itself by way of the eternal Word of God assuming the human nature in its fullness. In contrast to Western branches of theology, Orthodox Christians tend to use the word "expiation" with regard to what is accomplished in the sacrificial act.
In Orthodox theology , expiation is an act of offering that seeks to change the one making the offering. The Biblical Greek word which is translated both as " propitiation " and as "expiation" is hilasmos , which means "to make acceptable and enable one to draw close to God". Thus the Orthodox emphasis would be that Christ died, not to appease an angry and vindictive Father or to avert the wrath of God upon sinners, but to defeat and secure the destruction of sin and death, so that those who are fallen and in spiritual bondage may become divinely transfigured , and therefore fully human, as their Creator intended; that is to say, human creatures become God in his energies or operations but not in his essence or identity , conforming to the image of Christ and reacquiring the divine likeness see theosis.
The Orthodox Church further teaches that a person abides in Christ and makes his salvation sure not only by works of love, but also by his patient suffering of various griefs, illnesses, misfortunes and failures. The Catholic Church teaches that the death of Jesus on the Cross is a sacrifice that redeems man and reconciles man to God.
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A justified Christian is then said to be in the state of grace, which can be lost by committing a mortal sin. While the initial grace of justification is merited solely by the sacrifice of Jesus, the Catholic Church teaches that a justified Christian can merit an increase in justification and the attainment of eternal life by cooperating with God's grace.
The Catholic Church shares the Eastern Christian belief in divinization , teaching that "the Son of God became man so that we might become God. In Protestantism, grace is the result of God's initiative without any regard whatsoever to the one initiating the works, and no one can merit the grace of God by performing rituals , good works , asceticism , or meditation.
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Broadly speaking, Protestants hold to the five solae of the Reformation , which declare that salvation is attained by grace alone in Christ alone through faith alone for the Glory of God alone as told in Scripture alone. Most Protestants believe that salvation is achieved through God's grace alone, and once salvation is secured in the person, good works will be a result of this, allowing good works to often operate as a signifier for salvation.
Some Protestants, such as Lutherans and the Reformed , understand this to mean that God saves solely by grace, and that works follow as a necessary consequence of saving grace. Others, such as Methodists and other Arminians , believe that salvation is by faith alone, but that salvation can be forfeited if it is not accompanied by continued faith, and the works that naturally follow from it.
A minority rigidly believe that salvation is accomplished by faith alone without any reference to works whatsoever, including the works that may follow salvation see Free Grace theology. Lutherans believe that God has justified all sinners , that is, he has declared them " not guilty " for the sake of Christ. Lutheran churches believe that this is the central message in the Bible upon which the very existence of the churches depends. In Lutheranism, it is a message relevant to people of all races and social levels, of all times and places, for "the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men" Romans All need forgiveness of sins before God, and Scripture proclaims that all have been justified, for "the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men" Romans Lutheranism teaches that individuals receive this free gift of forgiveness and salvation not on the basis of their own works, but only through faith Sola fide : .
For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God—not by works, so that no one can boast. Ephesians ,9. Saving faith is the knowledge of,  acceptance of,  and trust  in the promise of the Gospel. Calvinists believe in the predestination of the elect before the foundation of the world. All of the elect necessarily persevere in faith because God keeps them from falling away.
Calvinists understand the doctrines of salvation to include the five points of Calvinism , typically arranged in English to form the acrostic "TULIP". Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought within Protestant Christianity, held by Christian denominations such as the Methodist Church. It is based on the theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius — Like Calvinists, Arminians agree that all people are born sinful and are in need of salvation.
Classical Arminians emphasize that God's free grace or prevenient grace enables humans to freely respond to or to reject the salvation offered through Christ. Classical Arminians believe that a person's saving relationship with Christ is conditional upon faith, and thus, a person can sever their saving relationship with Christ through persistent unbelief.https://freecenintes.tk
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The Five Articles of Remonstrance that Arminius's followers formulated in state the beliefs regarding I conditional election, II unlimited atonement, III total depravity, IV total depravity and resistible grace, and V possibility of apostasy. However, the fifth article did not completely deny the perseverance of the saints; Arminius said that "I never taught that a true believer can… fall away from the faith… yet I will not conceal, that there are passages of Scripture which seem to me to wear this aspect; and those answers to them which I have been permitted to see, are not of such as kind as to approve themselves on all points to my understanding.
Methodism falls squarely in the tradition of substitutionary atonement , though it is linked with Christus Victor and moral influence theories. Methodism affirms the doctrine of justification by faith, but in Wesleyan-Arminian theology, justification refers to "pardon, the forgiveness of sins", rather than "being made actually just and righteous", which Methodists believe is accomplished through sanctification.
Methodist soteriology emphasizes the importance of the pursuit of holiness in salvation,  a concept best summarized in a quote by Methodist evangelist Phoebe Palmer who stated that "justification would have ended with me had I refused to be holy. While "faith is essential for a meaningful relationship with God, our relationship with God also takes shape through our care for people, the community, and creation itself.
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Christian Universalists agree with both Calvinists and Arminians that everyone is born in sin and in need of salvation. They also believe that one is saved by Jesus Christ. However, they emphasize that judgment in hell upon sinners is of limited duration, and that God uses judgment to bring sinners to repentance. The Churches of Christ are autonomous Christian congregations , and one of several branches to develop out of the American Restoration Movement.
They claim biblical precedent for their doctrine and practice, and trace their heritage back to the early Christian church as described in the New Testament. Western Churches of Christ are strongly anti-Calvinist in their understanding of salvation, and generally present conversion as "obedience to the proclaimed facts of the gospel rather than as the result of an emotional, Spirit-initiated conversion. Some churches of Christ hold the view that humans of accountable age are lost because of their sins.
Beginning in the s, many preachers began placing more emphasis on the role of grace in salvation, instead of focusing exclusively implementing all of the New Testament commands and examples. The Churches of Christ argue that since faith and repentance are necessary, and that the cleansing of sins is by the blood of Christ through the grace of God, baptism is not an inherently redeeming ritual.
According to the doctrine of The New Church , as explained by Emanuel Swedenborg — , there is no such thing as substitutionary atonement as is generally understood. Swedenborg's account of atonement has much in common with the Christus Victor doctrine, which refers to a Christian understanding of the Atonement which views Christ's death as the means by which the powers of evil , which held humanity under their dominion, were defeated.
According to Jehovah's witnesses , atonement for sins comes only through the life, ministry, and death of Jesus Christ. They believe Jesus was the " second Adam ", being the pre-existent and sinless Son of God who became the human Messiah of Israel, and that he came to undo Adamic sin. Witnesses believe that the sentence of death given to Adam and subsequently his offspring by God required an equal substitute or ransom sacrifice of a perfect man. They believe that salvation is possible only through Jesus' ransom sacrifice,  and that individuals cannot be reconciled to God until they repent of their sins, and then call on the name of God through Jesus.
According to their teaching, the works prove faith is genuine. In the Book of Mormon the prophet Amulek teaches that through the "great and last sacrifice" of the Son of God, "he shall bring salvation to all those who shall believe on his name"  There are two kinds of salvation, conditional and unconditional. Unconditional salvation means that the atonement of Jesus Christ redeems all humanity from the chains of death and they are resurrected to their perfect frames. Conditional salvation of the righteous comes by grace coupled with strict obedience to Gospel principles, in which those who have upheld the highest standards and are committed to the covenants and ordinances of God, will inherit the highest heaven.
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There is no need for infant baptism. Christ's atonement completely resolved the consequence from the fall of Adam of spiritual death for infants, young children and those of innocent mental capacity who die before an age of self-accountability, hence all these are resurrected to eternal life in the resurrection. However, baptism is required of those who are deemed by God to be accountable for their actions Moroni Oneness Pentecostals teach that the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ are the only means by which atonement can be obtained for dying humanity, and which makes the free gift of God's salvation possible.
They believe that all must put faith in the propitiatory work of Christ to gain everlasting life. According to United Pentecostal theology, this saving faith is more than just mental assent or intellectual acceptance, or even verbal profession, but must include trust, appropriation, application, action, and obedience. They contend that water baptism is one of the works of faith and obedience necessary for Christ's sacrificial atonement to be efficacious.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Saving of the soul from sin and its consequences in the Christian faith. Jesus Christ. Jesus in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection appearances. Bible Foundations.
History Tradition. Related topics.
Denominations Groups. Main article: Jewish views on sin. Main article: Christian views on sin. Main article: Justification theology. See also: Righteousness , Theosis , Divinization , and Sanctification.
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